Friday, 14 December 2012

the water recycle

The Water Cycle

Run and get a glass of water and put it on the table next to you.  Take a good long look at the water.  Now -- can you guess how old it is?

The water in your glass may have fallen from the sky as rain just last week, but the water itself has been around pretty much as long as the earth has!
When the first fish crawled out of the ocean onto the land, your glass of water was part of that ocean.  When the Brontosaurus walked through lakes feeding on  plants, your glass of water was part of those lakes.  When kings and princesses, knights and squires took a drink from their wells, your glass of water was part of those wells.
And you thought your parents were OLD

water cycle The earth has a limited amount of water.  That water keeps going around and around and around and around and (well, you get the idea) in what we call the "Water Cycle".
This cycle is made up of a few main parts:
  • evaporation (and transpiration)
  • condensation
  • precipitation
  • collection

Evaporation:   Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean and turns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air. water cycle evaporation
water cycle sweat
Do plants sweat?
Well, sort of.... people perspire (sweat) and plants transpire.  Transpiration is the process by which plants lose water out of their leaves.  Transpiration gives evaporation a bit of a hand in getting the water vapor back up into the air.

Condensation: Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds. This is called condensation.
You can see the same sort of thing at home... pour a glass of cold water on a hot day and watch what happens.  Water forms on the outside of the glass.  That water didn't somehow leak through the glass!  It actually came from the air.  Water vapor in the warm air, turns back into liquid when it touches the cold glass.
water cycle condensation

Precipitation: Precipitation occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore.  The clouds get heavy and water falls back to the earth in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow.
water cycle
water cycle

Collection: When water falls back to earth as precipitation, it may fall back in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it may end up on land.  When it ends up on land, it will either soak into the earth and become part of the “ground water” that plants and animals use to drink or it may run over the soil and collect in the oceans, lakes or rivers where the cycle starts

all over again.



how was telephone invented?

Friday, 30 November 2012

newton's law of motion

Newton's laws of motion

Redirected from Newton's second law of motion
The laws of motion (laws of inertia) are the three scientific laws which Isaac Newton described; regarding the motion of bodies. These laws are fundamental to classical mechanics.
Newton first defined these laws in Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) and, using his newly developed calculus, proved many results concerning "idealised" particles. In the third volume (of the text), he showed how, combined with his Law of Universal Gravitation, the laws of motion would explain Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Newton's laws were modified, in 1916, by Einstein's theory of relativity.
Newton's First Law (Law of Inertia)
  • Every object persists in its state of rest, or uniform motion (in a straight line); unless, it is compelled to change that state, by forces impressed on it.
  • A body remains at rest, or moves in a straight line (at a constant velocity), unless acted upon by a net outside force.
This means that a stationary object will remain stationary, and a moving object will continue to move (forever and in the same manner), unless a force acts upon it. In everyday life, the force of friction usually acts upon moving objects. Newton's law indicates that some force (gravity) must be acting upon the planets, as they do not travel in a straight line.
Newton's Second Law
This is expressed by the equation:
This expresses that the more force an object receives, the greater its acceleration will be; and that, the less mass an object has, the less force will be needed, to accelerate it; the more mass an object has, the more force will be required, to accelerate it. For example, the force of a nuclear explosion will acclerate a kitten more than a water buffalo; because, the kitten has less mass. This law is associated with the conservation of angular momentum.
Newton's Third Law
  • Whenever one body exerts force upon a second body, the second body exerts an equal and opposite force upon the first body.
  • For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
  • Forces always come in equal pairs.
If you strike an object with a force of 200 N, then the object also strikes you (with a force of 200 N). Not only does a bullet exert force upon a target; but, the target exerts equal force upon the bullet. Not only do planets accelerate toward stars; but, stars acclerate toward planets. The reaction force has the same line of action, and is of the same type and magnitude as the original force.


Friday, 23 November 2012

effects of tsunami

Effects Tsunamis can Make 1. They can destroy lives/drowned loved ones.
2. Wash away properties.
3. Wash away and drowned pets.
4. The sound will make you scared and after it happens you might not be able to sleep well because you might hear the sound of a tsunami at night.
5. You won’t have anything to live like: Food, clothes, shelter, beds and blankets.


Friday, 16 November 2012

cause of tsunami

1. A Tsunami is violent disturbance deep below the ocean surface.
2. The under water earthquakes and subduction zones are the most common cause.
How a Tsunami Is Caused
When an oceanic plate hits a continental plate the plates press together and pressure builds.
Eventually the heavier oceanic plate slips under the lighter continental plate and causes an earthquake.
The earthquake lifts part of the ocean up and drops other parts down.
What happens on the ocean floor is mirrored on the surface of the water above.
The gravity acts fast to even out the water’s surface. The seismic energy created that big wave and it doesn’t just disappear. Waves start moving up to 600 miles per hour but you can’t see them.
The Tsunami extends thousands of feet deep into the ocean.
Tsunamis carry lots of water and energy so they can travel very far.


Saturday, 10 November 2012

what is tsunami?

  • Tsunamis are huge waves of water that are usually caused by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions.
  • As a tsunami approaches the shore, water may recede from the coast, if it is shallow enough the water may be pulled back hundred’s of metres. If you are in the area, observing this is a good indication that a tsunami is on the way.
  • Regions in tsunami danger zones often have warning systems in place to give people as much time to evacuate as possible.
  • When tsunamis hit shallow water (often near the coast) they slow down but increase in height.
  • An earthquake in the Indian Ocean off Indonesia in December 2004 caused a tsunami that killed over 200000 people in 14 countries.
  • In March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake off the eastern coast of Japan caused a tsunami that was a major factor in the death of over 15000 people.
  • The tsunami waves created by the Tohoku earthquake reached heights of over 40 metres (131 feet) in some areas, wiping out coastal towns and causing a number of nuclear accidents.
  • The Japanese word tsunami literally means ‘harbor wave’.
  • Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves but this term has fallen out of favour because tsunamis are not related to tides.



Saturday, 3 November 2012

do you know who is thomas edison?

Legacy as an inventor

One of Edison’s mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named Franklin Leonard Pope, who allowed the then broke youth to live and work in the basement of his Elizabeth, New Jersey home.
On December 25, 1871, he married Mary Stilwell, and they had three children, Marion Estelle Edison, Thomas Alva Edison, Jr., and William Leslie Edison. His wife Mary died in 1884. On February 24, 1886, he married 19 year old Mina Miller. They had an additional three children, Madeleine Edison, Charles Edison (who took over the company upon his father’s death) and Theodore Edison.
Edison, who made the famous quote, “genius is 99% perspiration; 1% inspiration” eventually invented the light bulb:

Thomas Edison died on Oct. 18th, 1931 in New Jersey at the age of 84 years.


Saturday, 27 October 2012

Wednesday, 24 October 2012

acid rain


 Rain is very important for life. All living things need water to live, even people.
Rain brings us the water we need. But in many places in the world even where you live, rain has become a menace.
Because of pollution in the air, acid gases from factories, cars and homes, the rain is becoming dangerous for the life of every living creature.
This rain is known as 'acid rain'.


Acid gases are produced when fossil fuels like coal and oil are burned in power stations, factories and in our own homes. Most of these acid gases are blown into the sky, and when they mix with the clouds it can cause rain - or snow, sleet, fog, mist or hail - to become more acidic.
The opposites of acid are alkalis; for example, toothpaste and baking powder are both alkalis. Strong alkalis can also be dangerous, such as ammonia and bleach.
Lemon juice, vinegar and cola are all acidic. Rain is naturally acidic, but acid gases make it even more acidic, sometimes as acid as lemon!
Nature can also produce acid gases, such as volcanoes. When they erupt, the smoke that comes out of the crater is also full of acid gases.


Saturday, 20 October 2012

your sense of taste


Taste buds probably play the most important part in helping you enjoy the many flavors of food. 
 Your taste buds can recognize four basic kinds of tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. 
 The salty/sweet taste buds are located near the front of your tongue; 
the sour taste buds line the sides of your tongue;
 and the bitter taste buds are found at the very back of your tongue.

Everyone's tastes are different. In fact, your tastes will change as you get older.
When you were a baby, you had taste buds, not only on your tongue, but on the sides and roof of your mouth. This means you were very sensitive to different foods.

As you grew, the taste buds began to disappear from the sides and roof of your mouth, leaving taste buds mostly on your tongue.

As you get older, your taste buds will become even less sensitive, so you will be more likely to eat foods that you thought were too strong as a child.


Wednesday, 17 October 2012


What Makes a Mammal?

There are more than 4,000 different species of mammals. The smallest is the hog-nosed bat, which weighs 0.05 ounces. The largest is the blue whale, which can be 100 feet long and weigh 150 tons. But whether they live on land or water, all mammals share some common characteristics.
All mammals:
  • Are vertebrates (which means they have a backbone or spine).
  • Are endothermic. Also known as “warm-blooded,” endothermic animals regulate their own body temperate which allows them to live in almost every climate on Earth.
  • Have hair on their bodies.
  • Produce milk to feed their babies. This allows them to spend more time with their young and teach them important skills they need to survive on their own.



Thursday, 11 October 2012

The Butterfly Life Cycle

Fun article explains the Butterfly Life Cycle, has LOTS of life cycle images and a coloring page too!

The Butterfly Life Cycle

 All butterflies have "complete metamorphosis." To grow into an adult they go through 4 stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Each stage has a different goal - for instance, caterpillars need to eat a lot, and adults need to reproduce. Depending on the type of butterfly, the life cycle of a butterfly may take anywhere from one month to a whole year.

Learn about the Butterfly Life Cycle, about the Monarch's life, see Pictures and find Links to more articles.
Butterfly Eggs on a Leaf 

The First Stage: The Egg

A butterfly starts life as a very small, round, oval or cylindrical egg.  Some butterfly eggs may be round, some oval and some may be ribbed while others may have other features. The egg shape depends on the type of butterfly that laid the egg. 
Butterfly eggs are usually laid on the leaves of plants.
Butterfly Life Cycle: Article with Lots of Pictures
Butterfly Caterpillar

The Second Stage: The Larva (Caterpillar)

When the egg hatches, the caterpillar will start his work and eat the leaf they were born onto. This is really important because the mother butterfly needs to lay her eggs on the type of leaf the caterpillar will eat – each caterpillar type likes only certain types of leaves. Since they are tiny and can not travel to a new plant, the caterpillar needs to hatch on the kind of leaf it wants to eat.   
Caterpillars need to eat and eat so they can grow quickly. When a caterpillar is born, they are extremely small. When they start eating, they instantly start growing and expanding.  Their exoskeleton (skin) does not stretch or grow, so they grow by “molting” (sheding the outgrown skin) several times while it grows. 
Fun article explains the Butterfly Life Cycle, has LOTS of life cycle images and a coloring page too!
Caterpillar Becoming a Chrysalis

The Third Stage: Pupa (Chrysalis)

As soon as a caterpillar is done growing and they have reached their full length/weight, they form themselves into a pupa, also known as a chrysalis.  From the outside of the pupa, it looks as if the caterpillar may just be resting, but the inside is where all of the action is.  Inside of the pupa, the caterpillar is rapidly changing. 
Now, as most people know, caterpillars are short, stubby and have no wings at all.  Within the chrysalis the old body parts of the caterpillar are undergoing a remarkable transformation, called ‘metamorphosis,’ to become the beautiful parts that make up the butterfly that will emerge. Tissue, limbs and organs of a caterpillar have all been changed by the time the pupa is finished, and is now ready for the final stage of a butterfly’s life cycle. 

Butterfly Life Cycle: Article with Lots of Pictures
Butterfly Emerging from a Chrysalis

The Fourth Stage: Adult Butterfly

 When the butterfly first emerges from the chrysalis, both of the wings are going to be soft and folded against its body. This is because the butterfly had to fit all its new parts inside of the pupa. 
As soon as the butterfly has rested after coming out of the chrysalis, it will pump blood into the wings in order to get them working and flapping – then they get to fly.  Usually within a three or four-hour period, the butterfly will master flying and will search for a mate in order to reproduce.  
When in the fourth and final stage of their lives, adult butterflies are constantly on the look out to reproduce and when a female lays their eggs on some leaves, the butterfly life cycle will start all over.